Past water and sanitation programming in Ghana has indicated that the Kumasi Ventilated Improved Pit (KVIP) latrine is one of the most appropriate designs for schools and clinics –facilities provide for the sanitary disposal of waste and are designed for both sitting and squatting positions.
Gender sensitivity is a major component in the design of all institutional facilities, especially in schools. In constructing facilities for primary and junior high schools, facilities provide for separation between male and female rooms. Additionally, female facilities are designed with higher walls and a changing room to ensure privacy and to accommodate young women’s needs once they reach puberty. The project aims to meet the demand of the school population, and the number of people served by each sanitation facility is in accordance with Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) and World Health Organization (WHO) standards: a four-seater KVIP can serve 240 students; a 6-seater KVIP can serve 360 students, and a 12-seater WC can serve up to 720 students.
The Ghana WASH Sanitation team rehabilitates or constructs sanitation facilities for clinics and schools that meet predetermined management and maintenance prerequisites for support. The project partners with LNGOs to train under a capacity building component and then employs local contractors with prior experience in constructing institutional latrines. Every sanitation facility at the clinic, and school, are accompanied by a hand washing facility. Facility designs may include rainwater harvesting tanks with taps (and the ability to receive piped water when available), Veronica buckets (covered buckets with a tap and a basin), “suckaway systems,” or other appropriate infrastructure, depending on the available water resources and drainage systems.
For the institutional latrines, financial contributions for are not required; however, all schools and clinics are required to establish financial mechanisms to support the maintenance of these structures with guidance and support from the water and sanitation (WatSan) team at the district /municipal assembly or LNGO partners through training of community management structures.